Turkey, Marianne Moore, Roland Barthes

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To A Prize Bird
by Marianne Moore

You suit me well, for you can make me laugh,
nor are you blinded by the chaff
that every wind sends spinning from the rick.

You know to think, and what you think you speak
with much of Samson’s pride and bleak
finality, and none dare bid you stop.

Pride sits you well, so strut, colossal bird.
No Barnyard makes you look absurd;
your brazen claws are staunch against defeat.

Last night after a very nice Christmas day with my parents and my in-laws over, my daughters having fun with their dolls and new games (Don’t Break the Ice and Let’s Go Fishin’ are just as awesome now as when we were kids), I spent some time in the studio reading some new books (shown) and returning to work on the turkey. The above poem by Marianne Moore seemed fitting for this bird, his pride starting to come through with each brush stroke.

I read some analysis of Marianne Moore’s poems–it might have been Calvino’s essay “The Bestiary of Marianne Moore” that talked about the difficulty in understanding some of her work. In another essay I read recently–I think it was by Barthes, but now I can’t find it–there was a point about not as much attention being paid to the act of reading and to the reader as there is to the act of writing and the writer, that the reader is as important as the writer. With this in mind, creating is a form of reading, and juxtaposition might be a further way of interpreting work. Thank you Marianne Moore for adding something to this in-process turkey. I’ll be thinking about this painting a little differently now. And thanks Mom and Dad for the new books.

Here’s a close up of progress so far:

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Starting Early On a Winter of Study with Oscar Newman and a David Tripp Style Tree Study

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When the weather gets cold I get more studious. Now that I have a daily bus ride to and from work that totals about 2 hours a day I have plenty of time on my hands. Therefore it seems right to declare this to be Winter of Study, even though it’s still fall.

On the reading side, my winter of study will be focused on the human side of housing, finance, planning, and architecture. I have some background in architecture history, but there is always more to learn, and now is the right time to be deliberate about it. To start it off, I am reading Oscar Newman’s 1972 work “Defensible Space,” a concise summary of which happens to be on the front cover in the picture above.

On the painting side, I want to take a more deliberate approach to my work in a few ways. First, I just want to do more small works of whatever for practice more frequently so I can get better at working quickly and confidently. Second, I want to focus more on people. On the first subject, I did a small tree study of a tree in my backyard. My house is on a hill and backs up to woods and a creek, so there is no shortage or leaf and tree compositions to do. I like the way David Tripp has done small studies of these on his blog, so thought I should start my winter of study on the painting side with something in his style. Here’s a close up on it under a mat.

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Over time, I hope to bring my painting and my work in housing together, but I need to be more confident in my abilities to do so effectively and regularly.

And for anyone interested in what’s in my sketching palette:

Daniel Smith French Ultramarine
Winsor and Newton Cerulean Blue
Sennelier Turquoise Green (pg50)
Maimeri Blu Prussian Blue

Daniel Smith Lemon Yellow
Daniel Smith Quinacridone Burnt Orange
Sennelier Yellow Lake (py150–nickel azo yellow)
Sennelier Viridian (mix of viridian and pg7. I thought it was pure viridian when I bought it)

Sennelier Cad Red Light
Maimeri Blue primary red magenta
Daniel Smith Perylene Maroon
Sennelier Titanium White (will likely replace with white gouache as it looks better on toned paper).

Thanks for reading.

Thoughts on Jamie Wyeth, Expectations of the Artist, and the finished Stormy Sailing painting

Recently I read a couple reviews of the Jamie Wyeth retrospective at the MFA in Boston that were critical of the show, the main point being that his work as a whole lacked a unifying purpose, that he was technically exceptional, but without the capital A in Artist.

I suppose thinking of his work in these terms makes sense given the show was about his career, but I also wonder if that’s what we should expect of an artist. If you took Winslow Homer’s work over his life, would there be that unifying purpose? Maybe the struggle and wildness with man and nature, but does an artist have to have such a theme? I can understand the critique of Jamie Wyeth, but some of the comments across multiple reviews (one in the Boston Globe) about his gull paintings seeming like a nightmarish version of something you might find in a seaside New England town’s local arts gallery seemed a bit off. His gull paintings were remarkably potent, and the Inferno painting showcased also in video was incredible to me. They had a twist to them that clearly separated them from what could be called “tourist art.”

Wyeth had a range of styles, including expertise in the Wyeth family way, but I see this range as potentially representative of an exceptionally talented artist trying to find his own voice among the many he can channel, and sometimes that challenge can be more meaningful than the challenges of one who clearly has his own voice. I see it as representative of this larger human struggle to understand ourselves and our own potential.

I wonder about my own art. I have neither the skill not potential of any Wyeth, but that isn’t the point. I, like anybody else, am just trying over time to figure things out. Painting happens to be a pretty fun and phenomenal way to do that, being useful and influential beyond just the problem of conveying and conversing visually.

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Here, in this sailing painting, I am working through a style that I have been pursuing over this year–one of somewhat rough brushwork, of materiality in watercolor. Watching the Wyeth Inferno video at the exhibit and also available on YouTube got me comfortable being more aggressive on the brushes–Princeton Neptune faux squirrel brushes happen to be great for this because they are high quality but very affordable, so you can really mess around without worrying about wrecking them. You don’t need them to keep the point, that’s what the sables of stuff synthetics are for. You can see my work on the sail especially comes from scrubbing the brush into the paper, letting it dry out. I like showing that I used a brush, letting some of the effort come through because that also makes the work more interactive, more conversational–or at least I can pretend it does.

Part of the narrative about Jamie Wyeth is a son trying emerge from the shadow of his father. Another part, as Andrew Wyeth put it, was a competition. Andrew Wyeth said in his biography, “When you get fame–you see, I’m in competition with my son whether I want to be or not. Just the fact that I exist as a painter.” I don’t like either of these characterizations. I prefer not in the shadow of, or in competition with, but in conversation with.

Thanks for reading.

Some thoughts on housing and vacation

Vacation is a wonderful thing. I spent last week in Lakeville, MA with my family where I had a chance to look back on the past few months which featured less casual painting and blogging, and more big efforts. In addition to an already busy schedule with my regular life and job, we’ve been preparing our first house to sell so we could move into the house we expect to last through our kids’ college years. We really loved the townhouse we were in, but we took it as far as we could, both in terms of space and design, so it was time to move. We had a sense not long after we moved in that it would only be right for us for about 5 to 10 years, and with the housing bubble bursting, that added urgency to the feeling, so it was never really possible to truly settle into it and get fully engaged in our own pursuits. Now we’ll be able to do that. This seems to be an interesting thing about the first home, at least if you buy with the intention of buying again. It becomes a transient space with the illusion of permanence, and the period of transience is too long.

Today’s rising generation, the millennials, is said to be putting off home ownership, in part because they saw their parents lose their homes in the recent financial crisis, in part because they entered an economy that wasn’t so favorable to them, and finally, because they just have a different sense of what they want for living arrangements–closer to bars, restaurants, urban environments, no cars, and so on. I read in one article the other day that the age for millennials is up to 34. That puts me in the first wave of millennials. This surprised me. I don’t really see myself that way. I’m also at the tail end of Generation X. I’m not sure how those two reconcile. Then again, I prefer it that way. It’s better to be none of the above, or some of the above, whatever. For me, at least where I live, I’m pretty young for what I’ve done so far–a couple kids, moving into my second home, pretty well established in my career with opportunities ahead of me. It makes sense to want to move into a single-family home in a bedroom community, even if it breaks with my assigned generational group. Good for the kids, plenty of space, peaceful, etc., and it settles an important thing for us so we can free up head space. Plus it’s what I grew up with.

There’s the idea that creative people living near more creative people has a multiplier effect, which accounts for the success of certain urban locations, and might also be an underlying aspect to the millennial urge towards the urban environment. This makes a lot of sense. You don’t have to do everything yourself, you just need to know people who can help. But there’s another side of things–and perhaps its the result of the nature of my personal pursuits–writing and painting–where I don’t need to be around a large community of creatives when I walk outside. For one, I’m married to one, and that’s the most important thing, and I am lucky enough to work in a pretty interesting place with a wide range of really intelligent interesting people. I suppose, though, to bring it back to the millennials, that became more apparent to me as I established myself more, and got to know a wider range of people who do different things around the company. When I first started, which might be the case with any recent grads, my circle was smaller, and it was not so easy to branch out. It was the ability and willingness to involve my whole self in what I was doing at work that made a difference, that helped me meet more interesting people. This has coincided nicely with our changes in housing situation and desire.

Beyond my personal housing decision, the housing question in general is interesting to me because housing is the point of intersection between so many fields. There are the obvious ones of architecture, engineering, economics, and finance. But there’s also art, cinema, literature, sociology, demography, geography, and on and on. Where we live has a profound impact on us individually as well. It affects where we go to school, who our friends are, what we do for fun, what we dream about, with whom we fall in love, when we fall in love, when and if we have kids. All of this goes into the building of community. So in a sense, when we talk about housing, we’re, in one way or another, talking about all of these things.

Where people vacation has a similar community defining impact as where people live. It gives people shared experiences, even if they don’t have those experiences at the same time. Vacation destinations, and the way they’re designed, encourage certain behaviors. The Outer Banks, for example, especially up in Duck and Corolla, has a lot of large houses that serve family reunions, or at least group vacations, with 6+ bedrooms, pools, etc. Families gather together in their own groups, which is very different from the boardwalk-centered experiences of other vacation spots. Various vacation destinations tend to draw people from similar places and backgrounds so that the community essentially travels from home to there. There’s a lot to look into for this subject, too much for a blog post, but it made for an interesting subplot to my own vacation.

I like our trip to Lakeville because it’s none of these things. It’s a simple escape to live a different life for a brief time, share some small farming experiences with my Aunt and Uncle, and do a little of my own stuff. I did a little sketching and some short story writing, which I haven’t done in years. It was good to get back to that. I’m sure I’ll post the story at some point, but it isn’t ready yet.

Once we complete our move, I’ll get back to painting and posting more regularly. I took a lot of reference photos for future paintings, and saw an inspirational Jamie Wyeth exhibit, so I will have a lot to work through soon. For now, here’s one sketch from my trip. Thanks for reading.

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Remembering the 80’s and 90’s, Proust, Tennis, and Okkervil River

“You can never go back, you can only remember.”

“Show me my best memory is probably super crappy.”

–from Okkervil River’s new album, The Silver Gymnasium

A few things recently have given me the nostalgia bug. I started reading Proust, I got back into playing tennis (something I took seriously in the 90’s), and I got hooked on Okkervil River’s new album, “The Silver Gymnasium.”

The album takes place in the mid 80’s in the singer’s old home town in New Hampshire, and it’s full of brilliant wistful lines and sharp observations that really remind me of my own childhood. To promote the album, Will Sheff, the frontman, reconnected with an old friend and performed new songs at open mic nights around their old town, and filmed songs and reminiscences in their old high school (which I think he attended in the 90’s). His stories brought me back to all the afternoons playing guitar at the tennis shack before practice and matches, and losing focus while playing tennis because I was singing Radiohead songs while wandering around the court. OK Computer had just come out and were were all thrilled when we could play Paranoid Android. Radiohead is not good tennis playing music, by the way. I played a tennis match a couple weeks ago that really cemented the remembrance . The leaves started blowing around, and I had an instant flashback to fall tennis in high school. I really got Proust at that moment.

To get my game back to where it used to be, I’ve been watching tennis from the 80’s and 90’s. Such a different game then before the crazy power/spin racquets people use today. I am a serve and volley player, and I don’t like that people don’t play like that any more. There was always that great stylistic battle between serve and volley and baseline players. Who can serve and volley today with the ridiculous racquets, slower ball, and ground-stroke happy players. Tennis was more artistic before. Edberg, Sampras, Rafter played incredible, concise tennis. These 5 hour matches today are rambling, almost like 18th century novels. There seems to be so much waste.

Watching older and older matches (long haired Agassi, Michael Chang at the French Open) brought back another memory of the 80’s: watching Reading Rainbow and Square One on PBS, then seeing the news come on afterwards. They always gave updates on the Dow going down. I was afraid of the Dow. Still am.

Thanks for reading.

Some progress on a new short story

I haven’t had much opportunity to sketch or paint this week, but I fit in some time framing the short story I plan to write this month. I am trying a new approach to writing after years off. I used to get hooked on an image, and just started writing from there. I wouldn’t plot. I’d just let things materialize. Being a little rusty, I wanted to try treating this story as more of a design problem. I wanted to write an end of summer story with atmospheric elements and some sort of human dilemma. I am not motivated by a subject I am driven to write about now, nothing I want to work out through writing. Instead, I just want to tell an interesting, subtle story that allows me to take advantage of my writing style, which tends to be atmospheric–I am interested in the way the environment intrudes on the personal lives of the characters. I tended to showcase this by having sounds from locale involved in the conversation/interaction. Here’s a silly example (not from my new story):

“Good morning,” he said to the barista. Her name was Genevieve.
The door opened. A spoon fell on the floor.
She smiled. “What will it be today?”

If this continued, sounds and other things would intrude, prevent him from asking what he wanted to ask, etc.

We’ll see how this approach develops in my new story, but I think I have it pretty well framed now. Here’s a picture of my notes to frame things. Thanks for reading. More painting soon.

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Some Thoughts on Plein Air Painting and Spatial Identity

On my way home from work the other day, I got to thinking about what makes for a compelling plein air painting, as I’ve set a goal for myself to enter at least one plein air event next year. I want to be comfortable enough with my plein air painting by then that I’ll be able, if given the opportunity, to produce some works I’ll be pleased with during the event.

There are the usual things that make a painting compelling that would apply to plein air as well—composition, color, value, motif, etc—but might there be something else? The immediacy of the experience, or the space, would necessarily be a chief component, but how can that be characterized? I got to thinking about the importance of our relationship to the spaces we occupy, and how fundamental that is to our sense of self. Our own identity, as individuals and as a culture or society, is so closely linked to the identity of the spaces we occupy. Put another way, human identity, cultural identity, and spatial identity are three of probably many sides of the same prism.

We see this often play out when one culture/nation comes in to colonize another. I wrote a paper on this in college that has since been lost in which I explored how the English, in expanding their interest in Ireland in the 16th and 17th century, made a concerted effort to change the way the Irish though of the space they occupied. The Irish were, if I remember correctly, roaming, with a fluid understanding of property ties. They couldn’t be mapped, they couldn’t be pinned down, and thus couldn’t easily be conquered. So, the English offered Lordships to powerful Irish leaders, in essence tying them not only to the crown, but more importantly, to the land. They were now responsible for a space, which was a fundamental mindset and cultural shift. This may not be quite right upon closer inspection by a better scholar, but I’m posting it anyway because it’s a reflection of a line of thinking I was developing that became foundational for my fiction.

As I was thinking through this, and its relationship to visual art, my thoughts were taking a familiar turn. It was very much a case of déjà vu. When I got home I poked around my computer, recalling vaguely that I once wrote something about spatial identity and art with a friend, not sure what I would find. It turned out that we had conceived of a whole book on the subject, which we intended to call Between the Motif and Me: Spatial Identity in Literature, Art, and Architecture, and had started drafting an introduction.

I mentioned in my last post that I’m looking at three different directions at once. This concept of spatial identity is one of them, so I’m posting some of what I found. What you’ll see below is only half of the intro to the book. The sections on videogames and architecture were not complete enough to include at this time, though I may return to them, or at least post excerpts—such as a good passage from Tadao Ando—at a later time.

Thanks for reading.

Between the Motif and Me: Spatial Identity in Literature, Art, and Architecture

 By Corey Aber and J. Patrick Chu

Introduction: Surveying the Landscape 

In 1895 Monet told two Norwegian interviewers: “To me, the motif is an insignificant factor; what I want to reproduce is what lies between the motif and me.” He wanted to paint “the air in which the bridge, the house, and the boat are to be found—the beauty of the air around them—and that is nothing less than impossible.”[i] Monet was ultimately referring to the feeling of a space, its underlying spatial identity.

As impossible as Monet claimed it is to actually do so, the attempt to capture and/or create spatial identity is a fundamental element of literature, art, and cinema, not to mention architecture, which itself is the active creation of meaningful space (in fact, the field of architecture raises additional questions of the possibility of creating a spatial identity from scratch).

We see this attempt, for example, in Hiroshi Sugimoto’s “Seascapes” series of photographs—a collection of black and white views of ocean and sky in different parts of the world. This series deals with spatial identity and the passage of time. For his exhibit at the Hirshorn Museum in Washington DC in 2006, he described his motivation for the project:

“One New York night in 1980, during another of my internal question-and-answer sessions, I asked myself, ‘Can someone today view a scene just as primitive man might have?’ The images that came to mind were of Mount Fuji and the Nachi Waterfall in ages past. A hundred thousand or a million years ago would Mount Fuji have looked so very different than it does today? I pictured two great mountains; one, today’s Mount Fuji, and the other, Mount Hakone in the days before its summit collapsed, creating the Ashinoko crater lake. When hiking up from the foothills of Hakone, one would see a second freestanding peak as tall as Mount Fuji. Two rivals in height—what a magnificent sight that must have been! Unfortunately, the topography has changed. Although the land is forever changing its form, the sea, I thought, is immutable. Thus began my travels back through time to the ancient seas of the world.”[ii]

These struggles of Monet and Sugimoto shed some light on the nature of spatial identity. It is not a resolute object or property. Rather, it is a spectrum that ranges from the inherent to the imposed.

In literature, perhaps the most explicit investigation of the spectrum of spatial identity comes in fantastic fiction and strange tales where the conflict often arises when a new identity is imposed upon either the inherent identity of a space, or an older identity of the space. Ghosts themselves tend to represent the remnant identity of a space.  Let us take for example Algernon Blackwood’s tale “The Willows” in which two travelers encamp on a small island in the midst of the Danube and find themselves in a precarious, haunted place. In the story, there are suspected spiritual entities that live in a parallel world that meets the human world at this place. These entities take as victims those who disturb their space.

This island is, in the words of the narrator, “a place unpolluted by men, kept clean by the winds from coarsening human influences, a place where spiritual influences were within reach and aggressive.”[iii] In other words, it is a place whose ancient sacred spatial identity is dominant and ever-present. The travelers disturb this by superimposing the practical identity of a modern campsite.

Blackwood embeds what borders on a manifesto for the concept of spatial identity directly in the narrator’s summary description of his feelings towards the disintegrating island:

“Small things testified to the amazing influence of the place, and now in the silence around the fire the allowed themselves to be noted by the mind. The very atmosphere had proved itself a magnifying medium to distort every indication: the otter rolling in the current, the hurrying boatman making signs, one and all had been robbed of its natural character—as it existed across the border in that other region. And this changing aspect I felt was new not merely to me, but to the race. The whole experience whose verge we touched was unknown to humanity at all. It was a new order of experience, and in the true sense of the word unearthly.”[iv]

What we see here is not only the will of the inherent, or ancient, identity of a space, but also the transformative power of that identity on the mind and all things it encounters.

This notion is not limited to rural space (in fact, urban fantastic literature was especially popular in the latter 19th century[v]) nor is it limited to the fantastic. It is no accident that the three urban types Walter Benjamin theorized—the flaneur, the badaud, and the detective—are defined by their unique ways of interacting with their spaces. Briefly, the flaneur is the stroller, the one who casually wanders the streets with the power of distracted receptivity, taking in everything he sees even without necessarily realizing it. The badaud is the gawker, the one who sits back and observes without actually participating physically. The detective puts the skills of the flaneur and the badaud into direct action, using their powers to process an environment and the activities contained therein to reach some conclusion and to affect some result.[vi] Edgar Allen Poe’s story “The Man of the Crowd” is often used to illustrate these urban types because the narrator takes on each role, first gazing out through a coffee shop window onto the crowd outside; then opting to pass within the crowd; and finally, pursuing one strange man, a potentially sinister figure, through the crowded intersections and back alleys over the course of the night.

The urban types and the relationship between the environment and the occupants are better explored in Virginia Woolf’s short story “Kew Gardens,” in which the space itself is also a character no less significant than the humans, with both humans and space practicing flanerie. The disembodied narration opens with a physical mood-setting description of the place that shifts into the space itself moving. At first the space is an object, something acted upon: “From the oval-shaped flower-bed there rose perhaps a hundred stalks spreading into heart-shaped or tongue-shaped leaves half way up and unfurling at the tip red or blue or yellow petals…The petals were voluminous enough to be stirred by the summer breeze.”

Within the same paragraph, the properties of the space start to act: “The light fell either upon the smooth grey back of a pebble, or the shell of a snail with its brown circular veins, or, falling into a raindrop, it expanded with such intensity of red, blue and yellow the thin walls of water that one expected them to burst and disappear.”

At the end of the same paragraph leading into the start of the next, the action shifts again, this time into the behavior of humans: “Then the breeze stirred rather more briskly overhead and the colour was flashed into the air above, into the eyes of the men and women who walk in Kew Gardens in July. / The figures of these men and women straggled past the flower bed with a curiously irregular movement not unlike that of the white and blue butterflies who crossed the turf in zig-zag flights from bed to bed.”[vii]

Woolf’s technique is highly cinematic in that it gives a complete, equally focused sense of space and its occupants, the blend of all of which creates the particular spatial identity.

John Sturges uses the same technique frequently in his 1955 film Bad Day at Black Rock about a stranger, John J. MacReedy (Spencer Tracy) who comes to the isolated California desert town of Black Rock shortly after WWII to pass on a medal to the father of a Japanese American soldier who saved his life. Some of the townsmen, led by Reno (Robert Ryan) are suspicious of MacReedy’s presence in the town as soon as he arrives, and only become more so when he starts asking questions about Adobe Flats and the Japanese farmer, Komoko, the murder of whom the townsmen are trying to keep secret.

Shortly after Reno discovers that MacReedy is looking for Komoko, he and the townsmen meet on the railroad tracks in a scene that exemplifies Sturges’ technique of prioritizing people and place equally. As the key villains (Robert Ryan, Ernest Borgnine, Lee Marvin, and the others) gather to discuss whether or not they should kill MacReedy, Sturges uses a series of shots in the center of town on the railroad tracks. These shots arrange the human characters geometrically, standing in different planes of view, the same way the lines of the telegraph poles, railroad tracks, signs, buildings, and horizon are used. Sturges creates an arrangement of lines and shapes, that, when combined produce an effect, a mood. As viewers, we are aware that the characters are subject to the harsh environment in which they live, the physical exemplification of which serves to highlight the central element on which the plot and the dramatic tension hinges—the murder of Komoko. This murder is based partially on his race—his cultural identity in the aftermath of WWII—and partially on the environment—Reno thought he had sold him barren land, only to find out later that it contained water.

These non-prioritizing shots give the impression that we are watching the town, the landscape, itself in action. In setting up the shots the way he does, Sturges also further urges the viewer to try to insert himself into the tight visual arrangements, making the landscape both menacing and fascinating.

To give these framed shots weight, Sturges balances them with an investigative character, someone to encourage the viewer to use imagine himself to be a participant, moving first from badaud, or typical watcher of the film, to flaneur, a concerned watcher interested in the goings-on in the town and landscape, and finally to detective, a watcher concerned with the outcome, piecing together elements of plot and place to look for clues to the outcome and to wish certain events to happen.

It is these techniques within a film that serve also to influence the cinemagoer outside the film. Italo Calvino describes the influence of the cinema on his own life:

“Every day, walking up and down the main street of my small town, I’d only have eyes for the cinemas…I would already know in advance what films were showing in all five theatres, but my eye would be looking for the posters they put up to announce the next film, because that was where the surprise was, the promise, the anticipation that would keep me excited through the days to come.”[viii]

The mere thought of a film and the expectation for it drives the cinemagoer. Its influence spreads from the celluloid world out into the streets, creating a particular, transforming gaze. It is neither the gaze of the badaud, for it is too focused, nor is it the gaze of the flaneur, as it ignores all other aspects of the city, nor is it even the gaze of the detective, because it does not seek to use its awareness of its environment to achieve any goals. It is the peculiar gaze of the cinemagoer. It is at once outward in its quest for new films, and inward in its desire to retreat into the imagination of and anticipation for the next spectacle.

Inside the cinemagoer’s head and on the screen, a relationship builds and an exploration takes place. For Calvino, the cinema “satisfied a need for disorientation, for the projection of my attention into a different space, a need which I believe corresponds to a primary function of our assuming our place in the world, an indispensable stage in any character formation.”[ix] This exploration of an imagined space translates into how we understand our own lived-in space. Our understanding of both the lived-in and the cinematic spaces—and the success of both spaces—depends on the relationship between them.

 Put another way, the spatial identity created within the film seeps out into the spatial identity of the actual world as perceived by the cinemagoer. Nowhere is this imagined interaction between person and virtual space more present than in videogames. While it is certainly possible to get lost in a painting or a photograph, only literature and film continually pose the question “how would you act in this situation?”

[…The rest of this introduction turns to videogames and architecture, but was not finished or written in a complete enough form to share at this time]


[i] From Enchatments of Air and Water by AS Byatt. Published in the Guardian on March 3, 2007).

[ii] Hiroshi Sugimoto. Exhibit Catalogue. Hirshorn Museum February 16-May 14 2006. http://www.hirshhorn.si.edu/sugimoto/seascapes/index.htm.  Example is “Sea of Japan, Rebun Island,  1996, private collection. Courtesy of the artist.”

[iii] Algernon Blackwood: The Willows  p 116 in Famous Ghost Stories Bennet Cerf. Vintage books 1944 New York, NY

[iv] Same as Above (blackwood)

[v] See Intro from Calvino’s Fantastic Literature.

[vi] Walter Benjamin, Paris in the Age of Baudelaire.

[vii] All Woolf quotes from 1st page of Kew Gardens

[viii] Italo Calvino. A cinema-goers autobiography in The Road to San Giovanni, page  38

[ix] Also calvino page 38